Tuesday, June 8, 2020
Well all, this year is coming to an end with a thud...definitely not what we had in mind when the year started. I will be turning in final grades this Wednesday. I noticed a few of you have made a last ditch effort to get things finished. I appreciate that much.

Remember Thursday, June 11 is 7th grade's day to pick up their belongings that were left in the school. I'm still missing class room textbooks that were taken home. Please return them. They will cost me $75 to replace them. I gave them out in good faith, please bring them back.

Also, if you purchased a yearbook, I will be outside in front of the school passing them out. I will have a list of everyone who purchased a book. There are no extras to be bought at this time.

Hope to see everyone Thursday.

Wednesday June 3, 2020
Hello Everyone,
This is a heads up that we will not need to Zoom tomorrow. Remember though next week June 11, 2020 all 7th grade will be collecting their things at the school. Please, look out for the announcement for your allotted time slot. I will be at the school during this time saying good by and passing out Yearbooks for those who purchased one.

Hope to see everyone then!

June 2, 2020

Hello Everyone,

Well, here we are the next to the last week of school. It's not the image I had in mind when I started this year, but nonetheless, this is what we were given to work with. This is the week to get caught up on all those readings and videos put out since March 13th. I know many of you read the articles, but I needed you to do one of the activities (quiz or summary) to help improve your grade for the year. Now's the time for a final push.

This is not my last correspondence, but I know for some this may be the last time we meet. All I have to say is if you can make it to the school on pick up day, please come see me if possible. I will be there passing things out but I would like a proper good bye and hopefully, a see you later.

I want to thank all you students again for staying engaged and working hard during long distance learning. Many of you shined brightly, and you know who you are.

Please contact me if you have any questions, I'll be here.

Take care,
Keith Stanger

May 26, 2020

Hello All,

Well, we are getting down to the finish line. This week's assignment will be brief in that this is the last week I will be giving lessons. Next week will be about finishing everything you can that I have assigned since March 13. Remember, everything can only help you increase your grade. Your grade cannot go down.

I have a video that I would like you to watch. Its a continuation of the Amendments.


Also read from Newsela:


Please get all you can finished by June 5th

Take care,

May 17, 2020

This week I want to refresh your memory on the creation of our government to better prepare you for next year's Civic's class. We will cover our Constitution,  the Bill of Rights, government, the electoral college, Political Parties, and campaigning. You will find these 6 short videos on Education Discovery:

This is an effort for everyone to realize the importance of these parts of our government and understand why they are there.
Please read and do one activity: Quiz or Summary. Quiz grade must be 75% or higher to get credit to raise grades.
The Constitution: https://newsela.com/read/primary-source-constitution/id/18146/?assignment=2002211985&classroom=2000873300The Bill of Rights or first 10 Amendments: https://newsela.com/read/primary-source-billofrights/id/18276/?assignment=2002212002&classroom=2000873300

We will discuss the rest of the Amendments next week. Understand this is not new information but a review of what you have already learned. This is to help refresh your memory and to give you a better understanding of how Amendments strengthen a flawed Constitution. The purpose of the Amendments are to make changes to the Constitution to help make a stronger form of government that shapes the needs of the people. 

In addition, continue working on the past assignments in order to get credit to increase your 1st, 2nd, and 3rd quarter grades.

May 13, 2020
I found an article on Native Americans and the impact of the US Government: https://newsela.com/read/natgeo-government-native-american-relations/id/53028/?assignment=2002187703&classroom=2000873300

May 11, 2020

Good Morning! This week we will continue learning about the history of the fight for equal rights in the United States. This week we will take a closer look at some of the individuals we recognize today as champions for equality.
John Quincy Adams: https://newsela.com/read/prezbios-jqadams/id/14392/?assignment=2002141565&classroom=2000873300
Plessy v Ferguson: https://newsela.com/read/primary-source-plessy-ferguson/id/18507/?assignment=2002141663&classroom=2000873300
Ida Wells: https://newsela.com/read/elem-hist-ida-wells-journalist/id/39422/?assignment=2002141703&classroom=2000873300
W.E.B. DuBois: https://newsela.com/read/bio-civil-rights-WEB-DuBois/id/26613/?assignment=2002141737&classroom=2000873300
Booker T. Washington: https://newsela.com/read/bio-civil-rights-booker-t-washington/id/19283/?assignment=2002141761&classroom=2000873300

View on Discovery Education
The Impact of the Dred Scott Decision on the Civil War: https://app.discoveryeducation.com/learn/videos/8cd84be7-307f-4569-be6c-83d3e1f6d547/

May 4, 2020
May 4, 2020

Good Morning, May the 4th be with you!
We are entering into what would have been the 4th quarter. Instead of pushing ahead we are going to go back to re-enforce the information we learned starting in September. The focus though, will be observing and learning about the roots to the Civil Rights Movements of the 1950 and 1960s. Without these beginning we would not have Rosa Parks, Martin Luther King, Malcom X,  and so many more who had fought for the equality that is promised in the Constitution stating all men/women are created equal and are entitled to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.

Even though the fight to end slavery started in the 1830s with government officials like John Quincy Adams. Our 6th President stayed in government after he served continuing his career as a member of the House of Representatives, where he would serve from 1831 to his death in 18
48.While in Congress, Adams became increasingly critical of slavery and of the Southern leaders whom he believed controlled the Democratic Party. He inspired a young congressman by the name of Abraham Lincoln in the fight to end slavery.

We are going to start with the Seneca Falls Convention, where women started to fight for their rights as equal and fought to end slavery in the USA.

Please read from Newsela the articles:
Seneca Falls Convention
Abolition Antebellum Reform
Turmoil after the Civil War
Black Codes during Reconstruction

In addition, watch the videos on Discovery Education:
Plessy v. Ferguson: https://pwcs.discoveryeducation.com/learn/videos/a68a6a14-e01b-4e07-9341-f141a9f42f36/
The 13th Amendment: https://pwcs.discoveryeducation.com/learn/videos/14c2b47e-49a5-4eeb-8040-c1886911da1f/
The 14th Amendment: https://pwcs.discoveryeducation.com/learn/videos/cf2c3c8d-857c-47a4-bddb-8dc6a5578748/
The 15th Amendment: https://pwcs.discoveryeducation.com/learn/videos/9cf8056c-f366-4617-a476-c81fee8a5357/

Understand that the work I am assigning right now can increase your 1st Quarter Grade since we covered Reconstruction and Civil Rights during this time period. So to answer the question, is this work being graded? Yes, but it can only increase your 1st period grade.

The second part of this lesson I will introduce so material to increase and re-enforce your knowledge on Reconstruction, Jim Crow Laws, as well as digging deeper into W,E.B. DuBois, Ida Wells, and Booker T. Washington.

Any work completed on WWII/Cold War after April 24 deadline for Report Cards will be credited and can increase the grade for the 3rd Quarter.

April 27, 2020

Good morning everyone!
This week we will wrap up WWII and briefly discuss the beginning of the Cold War. I hope to cover the dropping of the Atomic Bomb and the conditions of peace in Europe and Japan.
For Newsela please review.
WWII Part IV: D-Day and the end of the War
How the US and Japan went from enemies to allies after WWII

To understand the end of WWII and the beginning of the Cold War please watch these videos found on the Discovery Education Website: These videos are short so you should not have a problem reviewing them all.


If you wish to expand your understanding of the Cold War, this 2 hour video will offer you an opportunity to see the conditions and events I lived during my lifetime. For me, it started in 1957, but began before I was born.

April 20, 2020

Good Morning everyone!
This week we will try to complete as much work as possible to try and increase our 3rd quarter grades. Thank you to all students that have continued forging ahead with your academics during this difficult time. I love the activity that I've seen on the Newsela and Discovery Education sites. 

Monday and Tuesday will be used to try and complete work to help raise your grade. In addition, you will continue working on the Japanese Interment DBL. Once completed you can do your work in Microsoft Word and email to me or take photos of the documents and email those to me. A third option would be to drop your work off to me at the school from 9:00 to 11:00 during distribution times for breakfast and lunches. I will be there this Tuesday, Wednesday and Friday.

Wednesday, we will return to learning about the Holocaust. Many of you have already read the Newsela articles: Kristallnacht: the Night of Broken Glass, The Holocaust: Parts I and II. If you have not, please do and complete the activity quiz to show you have finished your work. In addition, in my Files and Folders section of this web site, there are two Holocaust Power Points for you to review. One is longer with more details than the other. Please review at least one of them for information on the Holocaust. 

There is a video I would like you all to watch. It is called, "One Day in Auschwitz," the story of Kitty Hart on YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mZYgzW2fS0o

Parents, since this video is on a harsh subject I do recommend you watch the video first and decide if it is appropriate for you child.

Remember we meet on Thursday at 9:00 for Periods 1 & 2; 10:00 for Periods 3 & 4.

April 16, 2020

Good Morning,

So many students were having problems accessing the DBL and other information.

Here is the link students will need for Document A

Here is the link to Document A for the DBL Document A is a news reel. Here is the link: https://archive.org/details/Japanese1943

The Power Point is too large to email out so students can find it on my Potomac Middle Web Page under the Files and Folders section (search Japanese Internment). Other DBL information is there also.

April 15,
Please preview DBL material so we can an understanding of all sides of the argument for our DBL. Log into Zoom at your appropriate time I gave you. We will go over the material and I'll point you in the right direction to complete you assignment.

April 13, 2020
Remember to be available for our Zoom session Tuesday at 1:30. I sent out emails and left messages on our Teams page on how to join in.

In an effort to allow everyone to catch up I will be doing a lesson on Japanese Interment by means of a DBL. I will be sending you all a copy on Wednesday to read over, so we can review it on Thursday. If you want to jump ahead, you can find the assignment in my Files and Documents Page. Look for the Japanese Internment DBL folder.

For those who want to jump a little ahead on the Holocaust and have read the Newsela article The Holocaust Part One, I have opened The Holocaust Part Two.

April 12, 2020
Below is new updated information Please Read:

Good Afternoon Everyone,

Hopefully, everyone enjoyed their Spring Break as much as we can these days. 

Starting on Tuesday, April 14, we will be heading into the next phase of our Distance Learning. The county has created a schedule on how each subject will be broken up over the week. For Social Studies, our days will be Tuesdays: 1:30 to 3:00 pm. This time will be used for you to contact me if you have any questions or other concerns regarding our lessons. Thursdays, 8:30 am to 10:00 will be time for me to do lessons. I will present information I need you to learn which should take about 1/2 hour. The rest of the time is for you to work on the lesson.

We will finish off our lessons on WWII which will include the Holocaust, Bombing of Japan, and the Beginning of the Cold War. Afterwards, we will not so much learn new material as we will take what we have already learned and how it impacted/affected today's society. This will include Civil Rights for African Americans, Women, Chinese and Hispanic Citizens. Over the next 2 months we will watch videos, work on DBLs/HATs, PowerPoints and other types of information. If you want and on your own accord, if you wish to continue reading the textbook on Unit 11 and Unit 12 you may. You are not required to, but it will only help continue your understanding of America's History. I also encourage you to go back and learn the Bill of Rights (Amendments 1 to 10), plus Amendments 13 to 21 (these are the Amendments we learned about this year). Knowing your amendments will be crucial in your 8th Grade Civics class.

This Tuesday, I will be scheduling a Zoom meeting for my students. We will go over everything from what the future looks like and all questions you have had on previous learning materials. 

Please check my Potomac Web page for updates and learning requirements (videos, Newsela reading, Discovery Education and History Channel).

I highly recommend you get involved and make a honest effort to continue learning. Understand, the school year is not over, but you need to invest in your learning. Remember, act as if your future depends on this, because it does. I am speaking not only of your Social Studies, but for all of your subjects.

You will be hearing from me soon regarding the Zoom session on Tuesday afternoon. Until then take care.

Your teacher,
Mr. Stanger

If you look at the calendar for next week you will notice it will be Spring Break. In the spirit of spring break I will not be assigning work. After, we should have a better idea of what the rest of the year will look like.

I will still be at the school passing out breakfast and lunch between 9:00 to 11:00 am throughout spring break.

Thursday, April 2, 2020

Today I was totally blown away by all the work I've seen coming in from my students. One aspect I love about Newsela is that it lets me know whose been there and the work they've accomplished. I was thrilled to see so many more new names on the list. From the bottom of my heart thank you all.

Hello Everyone! Here we are at Mid-Week already. I am following up to let everyone know if you have any questions are the material we are learning about, send me an email or on Teams.
If possible and if your parents give you permission, the movie "Midway" should be available on the movie channels or on Netflix. Check it out since it refers to one of the major battles the United States fought in the Pacific War. If was a turning point for America in that after this battle the United States started pushing the war directly back to Japan.

Tuesday, March 31, 2020: Thursday's and Friday's Lessons are now open (See below)
For those having problems getting into my Newsela page:

More on Rosie the Riveter: https://pwcs.discoveryeducation.com/learn/videos/521e5fee-a5a4-438f-a637-106edf7a6c0c/

Hello Class!!

I am slowing things down a bit so I can get us back on track and not having us all over the place. This falls on me and I apologize. What I will do from this point on is give us daily lessons for organization and moving us down a logical path.
If you have already done some of these lessons (quite a few of you have), don't redo. You may review the material or move on to the next section.
You will find the Power Points in the Documents part of my web page. You will also find in the WWII Information Folder Word Files which will give you additional information. If you want to dig deeper please give these a read.

If you have a desire to know more about the Rise of Dictators please review the Power Point in my Documents section of this web site under WWII Information Folder 

Week March 30 through April 3
For all my special needs students and ESOL, please go to our online book and read Unit 10: WWII. Read at a comfortable pace, then send me your work when completed. Please answer the questions on page 167.
User ID: PotomacS
Password: 22026S
There is also an audio version of this textbook

Monday: Review what we've learned so far:
Power Points: For A Overview of everything see: WWII_Review
Causes for WWII
Newsela Readers: Use links Part I: WWII Starts (Please see activities tab on the right side of page: Write a brief summary, take the Quiz).

Tuesday: America Enters the War:
Power Points: US Enters the War; US Enters WW2 SL
Newsela Readers: Links Part II: America Enters the War
War with Japan (Please see activities tab on the right side of page: Write a brief summary, take the Quiz).

Wednesday: Newsela Link: Part III: WWII on the Battlefield (Please see activities tab on the right side of page: Write a brief summary, take the Quiz).
Complete the work from Monday and Tuesday. 

Thursday: Power Point: WWII American Homefront (see my files and document section of my web page.
Newsela Readers (see tabs on left side of page): American Homefront: Women
Japanese Internment Camps in the USA
African Americans in WWII
(Please see activities tab on the right side of Newsela page: Write a brief summary, take the Quiz).

Friday: Think about the sacrifices that were made by Americans on the Home Front during WWII. They all pulled together and did what needed to be done by them to win the war. Now think about today's America and our reaction to the Covid-19 virus. Your assignment write a paragraph or more comparing and contrasting the actions of Americans today to those during the 1940s' wartime society. These Americans are known as "Americans Greatest Generation," what should today's America be called?

I am trying every asset I can get my hands on to continually feed you information that we will try to cover for the rest of the school year. Everything will be done online, which is why I'm trying as many avenues I can. Please try to join my classroom on Clever and Newsela. Newsela has tons of information on WWII. Here is the web site for Clever: https://clever.com/in/pwcs/teacher; here is how you get to newsela: https://newsela.com/quickjoin/#/Z4DRZC

Note to my students: Please understand, at this point I need to continue the education process so that you can get all the information required by our SOL. If you would like, you can send me a summary of what you learned or things you want to learn about. Even though you are not sitting in my classroom, I am and always will be here to help you with your academics regarding History. Know that I miss seeing each and everyone and hope you are all doing well. 
Take care,
Mr. Stanger

On March 10th, students took their test on the 1920s and 1930s. Those test grades are posted. All assignments students turned in as of Friday, March 13, 2020 are also graded and those grades are entered in the grade book. To view grades, find The Hub link located in the bar in the middle of the PWCS webpage. Click on it and it will take you to where you can log into either ParentVue or StudentVue.

Please consider checking the PWCS website often for updates on closing and other information related to the school system.  As posted by PWCS, "In response to the Governor’s direction, all new instruction will be suspended for the next two weeks.  

  As always, our class materials and documents can be accessed through our class website. Check the Files and Documents section for past lessons.  Also in the Files and Documents section you will find World War II specific topic Power Point presentations and materials.  Look for them under the World War II Unit folder.
  There is a link to the class online textbook located under the Useful Link section of the left side of the class website.  Look for the link "US History II Textbook" Click on it and it takes you to the publisher's Five Ponds Press textbooks page.  Scroll down that page until you locate the textbook, 
Our America: 1865 to the Present.  Click on either the reader version or the audio (spoken word) version to access the textbook.  You will be prompted to log in and then will be able to open the textbook. If you need the user name and password to access the textbook online, please contact me at stangekw@pwcs.edu


Listed below are the Virginia Standards of Learning for the next unit: World War II and the Holocaust.  These are subjects your child is expected to learn during this history unit.

Hello All,

Look at the information below...using my PowerPoints, videos on YouTube, Newslea, and Discovery Education. The History Channel also has great information on materials to read and videos to watch on their website.  Even BrainPop can give you good information. 

Most important-Stay engaged. If you need extra challenges I can send you some Document Based Lessons and HATs for you to do in order to strengthen your critical thinking Skills.

Unit 10: WWII
Causes of World War II
• Economic devastation in Europe resulting from World War I:
- Worldwide depression
- High war debt owed by Germany
- High inflation
- Massive unemployment

• Political instability marked by the rise of Fascism:
Fascism is political philosophy in which total power is given to a dictator, and individual
  freedoms are denied and nationalism and, often, racism are emphasized.

Fascist dictators included
Adolf Hitler (Germany), Benito Mussolini (Italy), and Hideki Tojo (Japan).
These dictators led the countries that became known as the Axis Powers.

The Allies
• Democratic nations (the United States, Great Britain, Canada) were known as the Allies.
- The Soviet Union joined the Allies after being invaded by Germany.
• Allied leaders included Franklin D. Roosevelt and, later, Harry S. Truman (United States),Winston Churchill (Great Britain), and Joseph Stalin (Soviet Union).
- Gradual change in American policy from neutrality to direct involvement
• Isolationism (Great Depression, legacy of World War I)
• Economic and military aid to Allies (Lend-Lease program)
• Direct involvement in the war

War in the Pacific
• Rising tension developed between the United States and Japan because of Japanese aggression in East Asia and in the Pacific.
• On December 7, 1941, Japan attacked the United States
at Pearl Harbor.
• The United States declared war on Japan.
• Germany declared war on the United States.

Major events and turning points of World War II
• Germany invaded Poland, setting off war in Europe.
- The Soviet Union also invaded Poland and the Baltic nations.
• Germany invaded France and captured Paris.
• Germany bombed London, and the Battle of Britain began.
• The United States gave Britain war supplies and old naval warships in return for military bases in Bermuda and the Caribbean (Lend Lease).
• Japan bombed Pearl Harbor.
• After Japan bombed Pearl Harbor, Germany declared war on the United States.
• The United States declared war on Japan and Germany.
• The United States was victorious over Japan in the
Battle of Midway. This victory was the turning point of the war in the Pacific.
• Germany invaded the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union defeated Germany at Stalingrad, marking the turning point of the war in Eastern Europe.
• American and other Allied troops landed in Normandy, France, on D-Day to begin the liberation of Western Europe.
• The United States dropped two atomic bombs on Japan (Hiroshima and Nagasaki) in 1945, forcing Japan to surrender and ending WorldWar II.

The Holocaust
• Anti-Semitism
• Aryan supremacy
• Systematic attempt to rid Europe of all Jews
• Tactics:
- Boycott of Jewish stores • Ghettos
- Discriminatory laws • Segregation
- Imprisonment and killing of Jews and others in concentration camps and death camps
• Liberation by Allied forces of Jews and others who survived in concentration camps

9. Boom and Bust



The student will apply social science skills to understand the social, economic, and technological changes of the early twentieth century by

a)   Explaining how developments in factory and labor productivity, transportation (including the use of the automobile), communication, and rural electrification changed American life and standard of living.

b)   Describing the social and economic changes that took place, including prohibition and the Great Migration north and west.

c)   Examining art, literature, and music from the 1920s and 1930s, with emphasis on Langston Hughes, Duke Ellington, Georgia O’Keeffe, and the Harlem Renaissance.

d)   analyzing the causes of the Great Depression, its impact on Americans, and the major features of Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal.

Students will understand that…   

  • Technology extended progress into all areas of American life, including neglected rural areas.
  • Reforms, such as the 21st Amendment could not legislate how all people behaved.
  • Economic conditions and violence led to the migration of people.
  • The 1920s and 1930s were important decades for American art, literature, and music.
  • The leaders of the Harlem Renaissance drew upon the heritage of African American culture to establish themselves as powerful forces for cultural change.
  • The optimism of the 1920s concealed problems in the American economic system and attitudes about the role of government in controlling the economy.
  • The Great Depression had a widespread and severe impact on American life.
  • Franklin Roosevelt’s New Deal used government programs to help the nation recover from the Depression.

Please Mark this date: February 7, 2020: Spanish/American War and WWI Unit Test

January 27, 2020

Please note that WWI reading on the causes of WWI is now passed due. I've added a copy of the lesson to my documents page if student has lost or misplaced the assignment.

We are now learning about


Reasons for the Spanish American War

   Protection of American business interests in Cuba

   American support of Cuban rebels to gain independence from Spain

   Rising tensions between Spain and the United States as a result of the sinking of the USS Maine in Havana Harbor

   Exaggerated news reports of events (yellow journalism)


Results of the Spanish-American War

   The United States emerged as a world power.

   Cuba gained independence from Spain.

   The United States gained possession of the Philippines, Guam, and Puerto Rico.


Use of Big Stick Diplomacy

Example: Building the Panama Canal

Grew the United States Navy as a show of American power


Added the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine

Europe was warned not to interfere in the affairs of The Western Hemisphere; the United States would exercise "international police power" in the Americas.

The Roosevelt Corollary asserted the right of the United States to interfere in the economic matters of other nations in the Americas.


Reasons for United States involvement in World War I

Inability to remain neutral

German submarine warfare: Sinking of the Lusitania

United States economic and political ties to Great Britain

The Zimmermann Telegram


Major Allied Powers

British Empire


Russia (until 1917)



United States


Central Powers

German Empire

Austro-Hungarian Empire


Ottoman Empire


United States leadership as the war ended

At the end of World War I, President Woodrow Wilson prepared a peace plan known as the Fourteen Points that called for the formation of the League of Nations, a peacekeeping organization.

The United States decided not to ratify the Treaty of Versailles because of a desire to resume prewar isolationism. The United States did not become a member of the League of Nations.


This chapter explores the changing role of the United States from the late nineteenth century through World War I. It examines the progression of the U.S. taking on a leadership role in the world through the Spanish-American War, the building of the Panama Canal, and World War I.

Heads Up!!
Unit Test on the Gilded Age December 12th
Study Guide will be given out next Monday.

Transportation resources
• Moving natural resources to eastern factories (e.g., iron ore to steel mills)
• Transporting finished products to national markets
• Locating factories near rivers and railroads to move resources and finished goods to markets

Examples of manufacturing areas
• Textile industry: New England
• Automobile industry: Detroit
• Steel industry: Pittsburgh
• Meatpacking industry: Chicago

Reasons for the increase in immigration
• Hope for better opportunities
• Desire for religious freedom
• Escape from oppressive governments
• Desire for adventure

Reasons why cities grew and developed
• Specialized industries, including steel (Pittsburgh) and meatpacking (Chicago)
• Immigration to America from other countries
• Movement of American from rural to urban areas for job opportunities

Rapid industrialization and urbanization led to overcrowded immigrant neighborhoods and

Efforts to solve immigration problems
• Settlement houses, such as Hull House, founded by Jane Addams
• Political machines (e.g., Boss Tweed) that gained power by attending to the needs of new immigrants (e.g., jobs, housing)

Discrimination against immigrants
• Chinese
• Irish
• Jewish
• Italian
• Polish

Challenges faced by cities
• Tenements and ghettos
• Political corruption (political machines)

USII.4d. Inventions that contributed to great change and industrial growth
• Electric lighting and mechanical uses of electricity (Thomas Edison)
• Telephone service (Alexander Graham Bell)
• Railroads, which permitted large-scale, longdistance transport of goods

Rise of big business led by captains of industry
• Captains of industry (John D. Rockefeller, oil;
Andrew Carnegie, steel;
Cornelius Vanderbilt, shipping and railroads;
J.P. Morgan, banking)

Reasons for business growth
• National markets created by transportation advances

• Advertising
• Lower-cost production (assembly line)
• Lack of competition
(monopolies and trusts)

Factors that promoted industrial growth in America
• Access to raw materials and energy sources
• Large work force (due to immigration)
• New inventions
• Financial resources

Examples of big business

• Railroads
• Oil
• Steel
• Coal

Postwar changes in farm and city life
• Mechanization (e.g., the reaper) reduced farm labor needs and increased production.
• Industrial development in cities created increased labor needs.
• Industrialization provided new access to consumer goods (e.g., mail order.)

Negative effects of industrialization
• Child labor
• Low wages, long hours
• Unsafe working conditions
• Impact on environment • Monopolies
• Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire

Rise of organized labor
• Formation of unions; Growth of American Federation of Labor
• Strikes: (Homestead Strike, Pullman Strike)

Progressive Movement workplace reforms

• Improve safety conditions
• Reduced work hours
• Placed restrictions on child labor

Women’s Suffrage Movement
• Susan B. Anthony, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Alice Paul, and Lucy Burns worked for women's suffrage.
• The movement led to increased educational opportunities for women.
• Women gained the right to vote with passage of the 19th Amendment to the Constitution of the United States.

Temperance Movement
• Composed of groups opposed to the making and consuming of alcohol
• Supported legislation to ban alcohol (18th Amendment)

Starting October 7, the class will be learning about Western Expansion to the Great Plains.

Physical features and climate of the Great Plains
•  Flatlands that rise gradually from east to west
•  Land eroded by wind and water
•  Low rainfall
•  Frequent dust storms

Because of new technologies, people saw the Great Plains not as a “treeless wasteland” but as a vast area to be settled.

•  Barbed wire
•  Steel plows
•  Windmills
•  Railroads

Reasons for increase in westward expansion
•  Opportunities for land ownership
•  Technological advances, including the Transcontinental  Railroad
•  Possibility of obtaining wealth, created by the discovery of gold and silver
•  Desire for adventure
•  Desire for a new beginning for former enslaved African Americans

Impact on American Indians
•  Opposition by American Indians to westward expansion (Battle of Little Bighorn, Geronimo)
•  Forced relocation from traditional lands to reservations (Chief Joseph, Nez Perce, Sitting Bull)
•  Reduced population through warfare (Battle of Wounded Knee), disease, and reduced buffalo population
•  Assimilation attempts and lifestyle changes (American Indian boarding schools, Dawes Act)
•  Reduced American Indian homelands through broken treaties

If you live near a park or zoo that has buffalo, this would be a worthy visit. The reduction of the buffalo population, caused by settlers heading west, had an enormous impact on the species and the American Indians who depended on the buffalo for survival. Ask the park employees to share their knowledge of the buffalo population with you. If you live near a railroad museum, this too would be a worthwhile visit. The expansion of the railroad system played a key role in the settling of the West.

Tie what your child is learning in school to your home by engaging in conversation.
• Discuss your knowledge of how homes, food, and customs differ from region to region. Tie this conversation to how the settlers adapted to the features and climate of the Great Plains.
• If you or your family has ever moved, share your reasons for doing so and connect them to the reasons leading to westward migration.
• Share your own thoughts on westward expansion and its impact on American Indians.

Reconstruction Unit Test Grades are finished, grades will be uploaded to the HUB by Wednesday, October 9.

Due Friday, September 20: Longitude/Latitude Worksheet and Freedman's Bureau Worksheet

USII.3 a-c, USII.3a
Basic provisions of the amendments
• The 13th Amendment bans slavery in the United States and all of its territories.
• The 14th Amendment grants citizenship to all persons born in the United States and guarantees them equal protection under the law.
• The 15th Amendment ensures all citizens the right to vote regardless of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.

Although these three amendments guarantee equal protection
under the law for all citizens, American Indians and women did not
receive the full benefits of citizenship until later.

Reconstruction policies and proble
• Southern military leaders could not hold office.
• African Americans could hold public office.
• African Americans gained equal rights as a result of the Civil Rights Act of 1866, which also authorized the use of federal troops comprised mainly of Northern soldiers for its enforcement.
• Federal troops supervised the South.
• The Freedmen’s Bureau was established to aid former enslaved African Americans in the South.
• Southerners resented Northern “carpetbaggers,” some of whom took advantage of the South during Reconstruction.
• Southern states adopted Black Codes to limit the economic and physical freedom of former slaves. End of Reconstruction and its impact
• Reconstruction ended in 1877 as a result of a compromise over the outcome of the election of 1876.
• Federal troops were removed from the South.
• Rights that African Americans had gained were lost through “Jim Crow” laws.
• "Jim Crow" laws affected the rights of American Indians.

Abraham Lincoln
• Issued Reconstruction plan calling for reconciliation
• Believed preservation of the Union was more important than punishing the South

Robert E. Lee
• Urged Southerners to reconcile with Northerners at the end of the war and reunite as Americans when some wanted to continue to fight

Frederick Douglass
• Fought for adoption of constitutional amendments that guaranteed voting rights
•Was a powerful voice for human rights and civil liberties for all

This chapter explores the time period immediately following the Civil War, known as Reconstruction. It examines the lives of the freed men and women, the state and federal governments’ responses to the challenges of the time, and the leaders of the era.

If you live near a former plantation or Civil War park, you will most likely find that it offers exhibits and information about life following the war. The Internet may be helpful in finding programs near you, but call ahead to be sure they are age appropriate.

If you live in Northern Virginia and have access toWashington, D.C., stop by the National Archives and view the amendments.While you are there, visit the Smithsonian’s American Art Museum to view art from the Reconstruction era.

• Discuss examples of how you have seen the 14th Amendment protect people in your lifetime. (See a description of the 14th Amendment in the Essential Knowledge to the right.)
• If there is an older friend or family member that would be willing to chat, have your child ask him or her about racial segregation.
• Find out what role the Freedmen’s Bureau played in your community after
the war. Then talk about what might have happened if the program had continued.

September 16: Be prepared for Map Quiz

September 5, 2019:

Students: Remember to turn-in your Primary/Secondary Worksheet by Friday, September 6.

Welcome to the 2019-2020 School Year.
As we begin the next year students will be introduced to 7th Grade History and the expectations for a successful school year. They will also start with reviewing the county rules in what is called the Code of Behavior. Afterwards we will dig in to the Regions and States of the United States and start learning of events that occurred after the Civil War. The is what is called Reconstruction.


States Grouped by Geographic Region

Northeast: Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania
Southeast: Maryland, Delaware, West Virginia, Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Arkansas
Midwest: Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota, North Dakota
Southwest: Texas, Oklahoma, New Mexico, Arizona
Western (Rocky Mountains): Colorado, Utah, Nevada, Montana, Wyoming, Idaho
Pacific: Washington, Oregon, California
Noncontiguous: Alaska, Hawaii

Cities Grouped by Geographic Region
Northeast: New York City, Boston, Pittsburgh, Philadelphia
Southeast: Washington, D.C., Atlanta, New Orleans
Midwest: Chicago, St. Louis, Detroit
Southwest: San Antonio, Santa Fe
Western (Rocky Mountains): Denver, Salt Lake City
Pacific: San Francisco, Los Angeles, Seattle
Noncontiguous: Juneau, Honolulu

This chapter explores the states and selected cities in different regions of the United States. It explains that a state is an example of a political region and may be grouped as part of different regions, depending upon the criteria used. It also discusses that cities serve as centers of trade and have political, economic, and/or cultural significance. Your child will need to be able to label all fifty states on a blank map of the United States and group the states by region.

Even though most of us cannot take a cross-country trip, you can still enhance the learning of this SOL at home. Watch the national news or read the newspaper with your child.

When different locations are mentioned, have your child find them on the map and point out if the geographic features of the area have anything to do with the story. The same activity can be done with a national weather channel. Talk about how geographic features might affect the weather in a specific location.